Heavy hydrocarbons: One of the unique features of chemistry that has caused us to see its traces everywhere and increase its boundaries day by day, is the high fertility and variety of products that come out of it. For example, the components of a simple compound may have many isotopes (differences in similar atoms in the number of neutrons), which makes this seemingly ordinary compound have different states depending on the atom in it. Situations that sometimes make a big difference.
For example, it may not be easy for some to believe that we can isotopically have 18 different models of a water molecule. In this combination, with 3 hydrogen isotopes (hydrogen, deuterium and tritium) and 3 oxygen isotopes (represented by numbers 16, 17 and 18) as well as 3 different permutations, there are 2 × 3 × 3 possible states that cause This water molecule can be formed in different ways that heavy water, whose name is often heard, is produced in the same way from a combination of heavier isotopes.
As another example, it is sometimes seen that as the amount of carbon or hydrogen in a fuel increases or decreases, its pollution level decreases and its incomplete combustion rate decreases sharply, so it is important to identify these changes bit by bit. Calculated by their suppliers.
Understanding the importance of each element and the extent to which even one or more electrons are affected, carbon is one of the most amazing elements known to man. This element, which has an atomic number of six on the right side of the periodic table of elements and the non-metal part, despite having four empty orbitals in its last layer, although not as reactive as alkali metals, is also able to lose electrons in the last layer and It becomes a positive ion and can also be converted to a negative ion by acquiring the same electrons.
This factor has led to the high potential for carbons to bind to other atoms through various bonds and, more importantly, to bind to other carbon molecules, so it is not surprising that one of the branches of chemistry and topics The textbooks in this course are devoted to carbon or organic chemistry.
Among the various classifications offered for carbon-containing materials, those compounds that are hydrogen-bonded and covalently bonded to produce new materials are called hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon).
We know that the source of many plastics and fossil fuels is crude oil, which is extracted from the relevant wells and transferred to refineries to become independent and consumable components. In this regard, after the salts and acids in this mineral are separated, what remains are hydrocarbons that are now ready to be separated with different percentages of carbon and hydrogen.
In partial distillation, this substance is heated to a temperature of 400 ° C. After this, this fluid is sent into the high distillation tower and during these interactions, smaller and lighter molecules (with one to four carbon attacks) come to the top of the column and heavier and slower molecules (with five to twenty atoms). Carbon and even more) remain at the bottom. Heavy hydrocarbons, which include gasoline, oil and other oils, are of the second category. Heavy hydrocarbons have a distillation range of 250 to 400 degrees Celsius and are widely used in internal combustion diesel engines, household burners and other industrial appliances.
This heavy hydrocarbon, also known as diesel or diesel fuel, is in the C14 and C25 ranges. Finally, regarding the functional groups of this product, we can mention paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic, which have an approximate viscosity of 840 kg / m3.